Monthly Archives: May 2017

The Spirits

A biblical look at a common belief in Uganda

How does the world work? What forces guide the everyday events we see? How you answer depends on your worldview. A worldview is a set of assumptions about the fundamental workings and realities of the world. Everyone has one whether they know it or not. A worldview answers questions like: what is the purpose of life? what is good? what governs the world? and what is real?.

Different regions of the world have different worldviews. Africa is no different. While not uniform, there is a shared basic worldview in much sub-Sahara Africa, if not all of Africa.

What happens when an owl hoots in a tree at night? Is it just a hoot or is something more happening? In much of Uganda, it is believed that this is a signal of bad things including death. So, they chase owls away. Owls are viewed as evil and harbingers of death. They are not a symbol of wisdom as in the West. They are not painted on walls nor are backpacks made to look like owls.

I was with a group touring an orphanage in Uganda. We got the part of the new building where the babies are housed. There were several cribs lined up along the walls in a fairly big room with high ceilings. The walls had a nice paint job with a mural. The mural was a bunch of those cute owls with pointy ears. I speculate that it was painted by someone from somewhere other than Africa.

Basics of Spirits in Uganda

Many of the Ugandans hearing about an owl hooting in a tree assume the work of spirits. Westerners hearing the story assume it is just a bird with no spiritual significance. Africans assume the spirits are active. Westerners assume atoms, molecules, and instinct are doing their thing. Your worldview will determine your thoughts on this matter.

The outside of a small typical shrine.
Credit: not me

In Uganda like much of Africa, it is the spirits who guide and direct everything. They are behind many of the objects and events in everyday life. Hence the term animism, as the spirits animate things. African Traditional Religion (ATR) is how people relate to these spirits. The spirits are everywhere. Belief in them is ubiquitous. There is a spirit of the lake. Trees, animals, and earthquakes have different spirit influences and/or causes. The owl has a spirit that announces bad tidings.

I had a student tell me that many in his village leave some matooke behind in the field when harvesting. This is to appease the spirit that governs such things. Another student told me, in order to have a successful gathering, you must put food for the spirits out the back door with your right hand with your back to the door.

On a side note, this African animism informs my working theory about African/Ugandan art. Most if not all of the art I have seen in Uganda is not what would be called realism. It is not postmodern make of it what you will. You can tell it is a giraffe, elephant, or a person but there is something stretched or just out of place for it to be a more realistic image. This is neither good nor bad, but just the way art is done by most in Uganda.

African art is not quite realism

Most in Uganda believe in spirits. Spirits are ubiquitous. The question is not about whether there are spirits. The question is how to deal with them. A Ugandan Christian asked, in a cultural training class I was a part of when first arriving in Uganda, how to handle the spirits and new cars. He said that he knew it was wrong to take a new car to the witchdoctor so he could bless the car so it would be protected from attack by spirits on the road. This blessing usually involves sprinkling the car with blood from a chicken. His proposal was that the elders of the church should lay hands on the car and pray for protection from the spirits. Some people even have bumper stickers that read: “This car is covered by the blood of Jesus.”

Notice how he assumes the spirits are an issue. He assumes the spirits have control over cars and roads. There are many spots on various roads that many think there are spirits that can bring an accident.

But how can you get these spirits to help you instead of hurt you? Enter the witchdoctors. They have a special ability to communicate with the spirits. They can tell you what the spirit(s) want in order to be appeased. In return, they give you some request. They ply their trade at shrines. This is a large part of ATR.
When people go to the shrine, the witchdoctor asks for some sacrifice. They ask for money, chickens, or many other things . . . including humans (and while it may be uncommon, humans are still sacrificed today). The bigger the request from the spirits, the bigger the sacrifice. The witchdoctor knows the proper sacrifice because he alone can communicate with the spirits. Some come to the witchdoctor to ask the spirits to curse another person. This is done for jealousy, revenge, or a host of other reasons.

A shrine in Uganda.
Credit: matookerepublic.com

The spirits are seen as capricious. They do as they please and sometimes bless and sometimes curse. This is why you need the witchdoctor to help secure the blessing. All events are interpreted through this lens of the spirits acting. Did someone die unexpectedly? Then was it spirits? Hooting owls, earthquakes, and many other events have a spirit acting giving some message. The spirits have the power and authority to act as they please upon the earth. Many realize this and try to get the spirits to work on their behalf.

Because of the prevalence of the belief in spirits, it should not come as a surprise that many consult witchdoctors. Yet it does surprise me. Many attend church on Sunday and visit a shrine during the week. Articles discussing this can be found here, here, and here. Apparently, voting season is the time for politicians to pray to God and visit shrines in hopes of getting a favorable outcome.

Biblical Analysis of Spirits

What should we make of spirits? How does the Bible treat them? Is it ok to visit the shrine? It is important to understand the culture and evaluate it in light of Scripture.

If the spirits are as Ugandans/Africans believe, then they are made by God. They would have some authority to bring blessing and curse. They would need to be appeased to bring the desired result. It would mean that prosperous living is simply a matter of the spirits acting in your favor. We will deal with these claims below.

If we assume the Ugandan/African view of spirits then spirits are different from demons. Demons are evil forces of Satan (Matthew 12:24-29). They are only acting for evil against God and his people. Demons are always portrayed negatively and are dealt with by casting them out. Spirits, on the other hand, are capricious and, as far as I know, answer to no higher authority (though some believe in a distant creator god). They may be appeased to bring a blessing for the supplicant or a curse on someone else. They act for random reasons. I will argue that where spirits are acting, they are in fact demons. But more on that below.

I have taught the book of Genesis to theology students in Uganda several times. It is foundational for a worldview. It is the book of beginnings. In Genesis 1 we see many of the things God created. He created light, stars, land, sky, plants, animals, and humans. The spirits are not named as something God created and thus have no authority. I like to ask the students where are the spirits mentioned as being created. To be fair, angels are not mentioned as being created in Genesis 1. But they are mentioned elsewhere and mentioned as created beings. Spirits are nowhere mentioned in the Bible, at least in the form of African spirits.

As a matter of fact, it is humans that are given dominion on earth (Genesis 1:26-30). All things God created, save for the sun, moon, and stars, were put under the dominion of man. Therefore, it is not the spirits who have dominion/authority on earth. It is mankind.

The Bible must define our worldview

In Genesis 1, God gave His blessing to humanity. Mankind was to take the blessing of Eden and extend it to the whole world. After blessing mankind, God commanded them to “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth and subdue it” (Genesis 1:28). We see here that the dominion and blessing of God given to mankind has a global application.

Also in Genesis, Abraham is given the blessing of God (Genesis 12:1-3, 7; 22:18). There God says that all will find blessing in him and his seed. Ultimately we know this seed is Jesus Christ and blessing comes through Him (Galatians 3:14-16). So blessing is found nowhere else save in and through Christ. It cannot be found in spirits or any other entity.

So the spirits, as offered in Ugandan/African animism, are not in the Bible. Though unclean spirits are mentioned, these are the same thing as demons as Matthew 8:16, Luke 4:33, and Luke 8:29 show. What is interesting to note is the similarities between spirits and the other idols/gods in the Bible. The idols/gods are capricious, there are many of them, and you need to bring a sacrifice to the priest who is the mediator between the god and the supplicant. The other gods were an alluring draw to Israel. One of the most often repeated sins of Israel in the Old Testament is chasing after these gods.

We know these other gods are no gods at all (1 Corinthians 8:4). Yet they held sway over many. Certainly, they held some sort of power. It is my contention that their power was from demons. A couple of verses show that sacrifices to these so-called gods were sacrifices to demons:

Deuteronomy 32:17 – “They sacrificed to demons that were no gods, to gods they had never known, to new gods that had come recently, whom your fathers had never dreaded.”

1 Corinthians 10:20 – “No, I imply that what pagans sacrifice they offer to demons and not to God. I do not want you to be participants with demons.”

A statue of Baal.
Credit: Wikipedia

So as many flock to witchdoctors to entreat the spirits to act on their behalf, they are actually flocking to demons. They are flocking to sworn enemies of God. Spirits are not neutral nor benign. In fact, they are evil and we should fight against them.

So what shall we do about this? “But what if someone curses me?” This is a real question from a real student. We need to know some biblical truth in order to deal with this issue and bring comfort to our souls.

1. We have to know God is sovereign over everything, including spirits. They cannot act independently of God. God is not powerless to stop them. God governs any power they may have. Satan himself must ask God’s permission to sift Peter like wheat (Luke 22:31). So there is nothing spirits/demons can do that
is outside of God’s control.

2. We must know no believer can be possessed by spirits/demons. Also, the demons in the Bible come out with a word from Christ and even His apostles. There is spiritual warfare but God gives us the armor to deal with it (Ephesians 6:10-20).

3. We need to know God is working for the believer’s good (Romans 8:28). Can bad circumstances befall a believer? Most certainly, yes. Is that the work of a spirit? You just cannot know. But God is bringing good out of it.

4. You should pray for protection. You should, like Jesus did for Peter, pray that your faith not fail.

Many seek witchdoctors and the spirits in order to gain something. Mostly they seek financial or health-related gains. Christians pray for these very things from God, and they should. But the Bible makes clear that God’s ordinary working is through ‘normal’ events. That is why Paul instructs people to work so they can provide for their families and others (Ephesians 4:28). It is also why Paul tells Timothy to take wine for his stomach (1 Timothy 5:23). He recognizes that God uses ordinary means. If we think the only way we can get rich or well is through the spirits then we have missed plain biblical teaching.

What about the Ugandan Christian mentioned previously? He was wondering if he should take a new car to the elders for them to lay hands and pray for it in order to gain protection from spirits. Is that something that should be done? Since the spirits in the Ugandan sense are not real, then I would say no. But they should pray for it that the passengers be kept safe and that it would be used for God’s glory.

Conclusion

I say all this not because I don’t believe in spiritual realities we don’t see. I do, in fact, believe in them. Analyzing a big part of African society from a biblical worldview is my goal. Is there room for the spirits? Are they as ATR says they are? What is really going on?

Spirits, in the Ugandan sense, are not real entities from a biblical worldview. There are demons, however. These spiritual entities use the belief in the spirits to gain a powerful stronghold. We must seek God’s Word for guidance in dealing with demons/unclean spirits.

We need not be beholden to an ATR worldview. Instead, we need to seek a biblical worldview. We see the Bible does not discuss or acknowledge the spirits as presented in ATR. Instead, the Bible presents an ordered world with one God who is sovereign and has given mankind, not spirits, dominion and blessing. We must seek this God and live in light of His truth.

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A Review of The Kingdom of Heaven is Like This – an Album of Rain for Roots

My wife, Brooke, loves Sandra McCracken and she loves her kids. So when Sandra McCracken comes out with a kid’s album she has it downloaded in 12 minutes. I am glad we did.

It turns out it wasn’t just Sandra. She is in a band with 3 other ladies called Rain for Roots. The other ladies are Ellie Holcomb, Katy Bowser, and Flo Paris. So far they have 3 albums. We have their sophomore album released in 2014. I have never reviewed an album so this is a first for me.

We have a few albums for kids that have Christian songs on them. Most of them, including a Fisher Price album, are very kitschy. The Kingdom of Heaven Is Like This has much more quality and depth. The music is well done but in a simple way appealing to children. It certainly appeals to our kids.

There are upbeat songs, like ‘Good Fruit’ and slower, more touching songs like ‘Come to Me’ and ‘Do Not Worry’. Many of the songs have an even pace with a bit of seriousness. The upbeat songs are catchy and simple but not that awful repeated mess that makes you rather listen to nails on a chalkboard. The slower songs are considered and poignant. Some of the music pokes a hole in your heart and lets the emotion come running out. I might make you tear up, not that it has happened to me. Ok, it has.

The music is great but the lyrics are what I most appreciate. The each song’s music serves the message. Biblical truth is belted out, with my kids singing along. The words are rich and deep. Best of all they come right out of the Bible with some application. The 3rd track, ‘Do Not Worry’ is a great example. Using Jesus’ words in Matthew 6:25-30, it speaks of trusting God because He takes care of birds and flowers. The chorus instructs, “And don’t you worry ‘cause you’re in the hands of the God who made everything.” Ellie Holcomb said she wrote the song because she was pregnant and kept worrying about the baby. She and I both now know God’s care for us better. Each song offers a similar biblical take and drives home into your heart some profound truths.

Finding Ellie Holcomb and her voice is worth the price alone. Her voice is a touch raspy and sweet. He vocals add to the significance. When she talks at the end of ‘Do Not Worry’ I get goosebumps. As Randy Jackson said of another singer, I could listen to her sing the phone book. Her music serves the words well.

There are children who sing on the album. This is done in a subtle but rich way. On ‘Come to Me’ the child is barely heard in the beginning and gets louder as the song progresses. This seems to be a way of showing the child is learning to come to Jesus for rest as the song instructs.

I love listening to the album with my kids. What’s better is that they love listening to it. Titus, my 3-year-old, loves ‘Come to Me’. He often asks to sing it at family worship time. He once had us repeat the song 5 times before I said we needed to play other songs.

This has been a wonderful album that has had many plays. It has enriched the faith of my family and helped my kids sing God’s truth into their hearts. It is an enjoyable listen. We only have the one album. That will change soon.

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The Witch Doctor’s Wife

The Power of God

One of the goals of church planting is taking the gospel to places it is less known, taking it to places where people don’t know the good news of Jesus Christ. The church, most keenly through church planting, storms the gates of hell to pronounce the gospel.

In an effort to grow in my own understanding of church planting here in Uganda I spoke with some church planters. Once such person, Ben Tomugabe, told how his church is storming the gates of hell and proclaiming the gospel.

Pastor Ben is from a region outside Kampala, and planting New Jerusalem Church in an area near Kampala, Uganda. He is planting with the Presbyterian Church in Uganda denomination. He is using his home’s yard as the meeting place for the church. The plant began in early 2014 with a bible study and grew within a year (at the time I spoke to him about these events) to meeting regularly with 80 people.

After buying his home, but before the church plant, pastor Ben found out a witch doctor happens to live just across the small dirt road from his house. The witch doctor practices his craft seeking the spirits on the behalf of others. His shrine is just a stone’s throw from Ben’s house. He is married to three wives and has children.

The witch doctor is famous in the community. Many go to consult with him about various life issues. But Pastor Ben wanted a church who proclaimed Christ to be known in the community. So he started planting a church just meters away from a witch doctor.

When the services began at New Jerusalem, a few of the witch doctor’s children, including his heir, were attending the bible club for children. The mother of these children, one of the witch doctor’s three wives, was coming to know about NJ.

Meanwhile, the witch doctor told his wife that within one month something bad would happen to the church and it would no longer be there. The spirits would make sure of that. This got his wife’s attention and she watched patiently for something treacherous to befall the young church.

Nothing happened. When she realized nothing had happened or would happen she questioned the witchcraft ways in her heart. She said that God is beyond the power of the evil spirits. Seeing the impotence of the spirits in the face of the power of God, she knew that in actuality the spirits were powerless.

So she began to meet with Pastor Ben every Monday after dark. She didn’t want to meet on Sunday or during the day for fear that some of the witch doctor’s customers would see her and report to her husband. This reminds me of Nicodemus meeting with Jesus in the Gospel of John. Nicodemus came out at night presumably to meet in secret with Jesus. Why else is that detail included?

So, even though steps were taken to be secret about her meeting with the pastor, the witch doctor found out. He kicked her out and she is no longer his wife. She was forced to leave her home and her children as he has kept them.

Pastor Ben has helped her and prayed for her. He helped her find her sister, who is a Christian, and helped her get there. She is currently living with her sister. She has experienced tragedy and Christ is loving her through Pastor Ben and her sister.

This event demonstrates the seriousness of witchcraft in Uganda. But it also demonstrates the power of God over the spirits. The witch doctor’s wife saw this plainly. More churches are needed to help people see God as the true power. He alone can save and provide the true comfort people seek in Uganda and around the world.

When asked what could help church planting efforts in Uganda, Pastor Ben said that having some outsiders, specifically Americans stand with him would be helpful. I don’t know what this entails but it at least includes praying for Ben and others gospel proclaiming planting churches in Uganda. Let us do that today.

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A Review of The Search for God and Guinness by Steven Mansfield

The Search for God and Guinness is about God and beer. Some might find combining these two things offensive. But the way author Steven Mansfield brings these two topics together is refreshing, much like a cold beverage on a warm day.

Tracing the roots of the founding and ongoing life of the Guinness beer brand and company, the book looks at how Arthur Guinness’ faith enabled him to be a great brewer and a great humanitarian. At its core, this book is about joining faith and work together into a biblical bond.

The first chapter on the history of beer is fascinating in itself. While some historical guesswork goes on, this does not take away from some of the more certain aspects of the history of beer. It has been around for ages and the author postulates that beer is responsible for bringing about the first cities. Brew plays a big role in ancient civilizations, modern ones, and even biblical ones.

Mansfield’s introduction to his personal story of beer is helpful. He dispels the myth that drinking is bad and that one must drink to get drunk. Rather he shares how he didn’t like the taste of beer but looked in on the beer culture like a kid looks into a candy store. He saw his father share beers with friends, at weddings, funerals, and various other life functions. He says beer is the marker of life and denotes a sharing of friendship and joy with others.

The story of Arthur Guinness and his successors should be read by businesses, especially Christians in business. They were men who understood how to take care of employees and utilize a righteous use of wealth. One of Arthur’s descendants was given 5 million pounds as a wedding gift in the early 20th century. He promptly moved himself and his wife into the slums of Dublin, Ireland where they lived for 7 years. This was a shock to the nobility of Dublin and a welcome gesture by the poor. Mansfield is keen to point out this can be traced to the faith and life of Arthur.

The manner in which Arthur Guinness and those who followed him took care of their employees and sought to make a quality product is something to be emulated. They provided doctors, further education, wartime pay, above average pay, and many more benefits that only grew with time.

This book is a quick and enjoyable read and yet is sturdy enough to challenge all. Business people should read this book to glean the moral side of business and the righteous use of wealth. Beer lovers should read this book for the history of beer and the story of how one man made quite possibly the most famous beer in the world. Christians should read this book to understand how work is holy and how faith and work ought to be integrated. Basically, everyone should read this book – and I might recommend doing it with a pint of Guinness in hand.

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The Civil War Pastor

Patrick is an example of faithfulness in hard circumstances

Last week I blogged about remaining faithful in hard circumstances like Joseph did. This week I met a man who illustrated this so well.

South Sudan, as you know, is undergoing a civil war. Many areas are not safe and there is no end in sight. There are over 1 million refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs). Many have fled to Uganda. Many others have fled to UNMISS camps within South Sudan. These camps provide safety from bullets but do not provide food or medicine.

Peter and I in Kampala. Thumbs Up!!!!

I got to meet with Patrick, a South Sudanese pastor. We met for dinner as he was in Kampala at a conference discussing peace in South Sudan. We dined at KFC. Why KFC? It was the only thing I knew was close by his conference.

Patrick pastors two churches in Juba and is the General Secretary of the Synod of the Sudanese Reformed Church. He has a wife and 4 children. His wife and 2 children are safe in Kenya, another child is studying in Egypt, and the last is studying in the Ukraine. He alone remains in Juba serving his church and his people.

He told me he was almost killed three times. He praises God that he was able to escape from each incident. He also told me that one church was burned down and that 27 people of that church were killed. Some of these on purpose and some in the crossfire.

The Sudanese Reformed Church denomination is small by some measures in having 16 congregations. But they are big in faithfulness.

How do they respond to the crisis? With so many in the UNMISS camps, they have started 18 small groups to minister to the people in the camps. Because of the great number of IDPs they have begun a school, with grades K-3 currently, to serve the needs of the children.

What was fascinating is his ask. He asked for someone to watch their growth and give advice. He asked for a more mature body to be a mentor to their small group. He asked for assistance in the area of leadership development. He asked for prayer. He asked for help in progressing gospel work in South Sudan. He wants to see Christ’s kingdom expand in the face of war, famine, and many other hardships. He is being faithful.

I was both encouraged and challenged. Certainly we can pray for him and his church. May God bless their efforts and extend His kingdom in South Sudan. May South Sudan know the peace of Christ.

Sudanese Reformed Church by the numbers

16Congregations
18Small Groups in UNMISS camps
12Ordained Pastors
18Evangelists
16Ruling Elders
8Deacons
6,000Members

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